1. What is child development?
Child development involves four changes that take place from birth to adulthood:
- physical: how children’s bodies grow and develop
- cognitive: how children think, explore, and figure things out
- social: how children learn to interact with those around them
- emotional: how children understand who they are and what they feel
Through these changes, individuals move from complete dependency at birth to increasing independence and autonomy as they reach adolescence and young adulthood.
The process of child development is strongly intertwined with a child’s genetic makeup. But because development is an interactive process, genes alone do not determine who someone will become. The environment in which a child is raised also affects who he or she will be as an adult. It is not possible to say which is more important: Inheritance and experience are both key influences.
Perhaps most crucially, within the environment in which children are raised, families play a central role in their development.
All children go through stages of development, with each stage providing a foundation for the next. Many different stages have been described. For example, focusing on children’s cognitive development, Jean Piaget described four stages:
- The first two years—the “sensorimotor stage.” Babies develop action schemes like sucking, pushing, hitting, and grasping.
- Two to seven years—the “pre-operational stage.” Children develop the ability to think, but have limited ability to apply logic to a situation to deduce something by thought alone.
- Seven to 11 years—“concrete operational stage.” Children start working things out through logical thought rather than just action.
- 12 to 15 years—“formal operational stage.” Children engage in systematic experimentation, forming hypotheses, testing them, and trying alternatives.
Focusing on social development, John Bowlby described four stages: pre-attachment (first 6 weeks), attachment in the making (until 7-8 months, as the child shows increasing preferences), attachment (until the start of the third year, marked by distress when separated from attachment figures), and goal-corrected partnerships (when the child starts to take into account the attachment figure’s needs).
2. Nature or nurture?
The answer is: This is the wrong question! It used to be thought that the genes children receive from their parents were completely separate from the experiences that shape their development. But the study of epigenetics has shown that our experiences affect our genes and these changes are inheritable. For example, if parents—either mothers or fathers—have experienced trauma in their lives, their children are more likely to be susceptible to anxiety. Our experiences produce proteins that attach to our genes and influence how the genes work. These changes may be passed down to generations. The good news is that they can be reversed by new experiences and with support.
3. The role of the family in child development
3.1 Team parenting
Families are infinite in variety within and across cultures, and also across history. But every family that successfully raises children has something in common: the ability of parents, relatives, and other caregivers to work together as a team or “community of care” to raise each child.
A child’s relationships with parents, carers, and siblings play important roles in the development process. Early experiences, especially children’s attachment to parents and other key carers, shape children’s future development.
The relationships between parents and caregivers also strongly influence child development. Positive, interactive, and communicative relationships within the “community of care” help promote strong child development.
This dependence of development on relationships explains the extreme pain children experience when exposed to parental conflict. While conflict occurs in all families, children in families with high levels of discord are at risk of developmental damage. Parents who work together to raise their children and don’t undermine each other’s parenting have offspring who do better. Parents who struggle to reach this balance have children who may become fearful or anxious, and who may find it hard to focus on learning.
Does it matter if parents care in different ways? Children benefit from diverse experiences of care, for example, how far they are pushed in a game, or having parents and grandparents who care for them in different ways. If these differences go too far, however—if the carers are not agreed on basic principles and are not working together—it creates confusion for the children and disrupts strong development, leading in extreme cases to a child developing hostility, aggression, or passivity.
Throughout history, parenting has been a team effort. Anthropologists who have studied the origins of the human species have found that team parenting is key to the success of the human race. Human children are dependent on their carers for far longer than other animals and typically, multiple children grow up in families at the same time. Parents and others acting in a parenting role (called “alloparents”) fill in for each other over time, protecting the child even in the most extreme case of a biological parent not surviving (which used to occur far more frequently). This robust form of parenting has meant that children can thrive in a large variety of conditions, including those that are harsh.
3.2 The “primary carer”
Is there such a thing as a single “primary carer”? In some families, one carer does more than the other and can be called a primary carer. In others, care is more shared. One parent carrying the lion’s share of parenting is a relatively recent phenomenon historically speaking, emerging as families in some societies started to live in smaller household units and when work moved away from the home. But even in these families—and also in families where parents have separated or were never together—others help with the care of the children and can play an important part in child development.
Research shows that the most important factor is not the exact composition of the family, but the quality of the caring and how parents and carers—whoever they are—work as a team. Where there are differences in child development, it is because of other things. For example, studies show that single-parent families tend to have less money, which can disadvantage children, while same-sex parents tend to work together more closely as a parenting team, which benefits children. Warm collaborative parenting can take place in any family formation, and this is what matters to children.
3.3 Separation and divorce
The parent-child relationship, particularly a child’s relationship with his or her father, is at risk during separation and divorce. Worse developmental outcomes in later life are among the effects of divorce on children who lose a parent-child relationship. That is not to say that every individual child does worse, just that the risk of doing worse is significantly higher. By understanding the effects of divorce on children, families can avoid damaging patterns of behavior and work to improve child development outcomes.
A review of research on divorce on this website, Scientists Urge More Priority to Protecting the Parent-Child Relationship to Limit the Effects of Divorce on Children, makes the case that family law should make it a priority to preserve not “at least one” relationship, but all parent-child relationships that are important to a child. And parents who separate or divorce might consider the benefits of shared parenting and shared physical custody, which mitigate the negative effects of separation and divorce on children.
Poverty and disadvantage make parenting much more difficult. This is in part because these conditions create major challenges for parents. Poverty also has powerful effects on child development.
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds can fall behind their peers in language and learning, even as early as age three. In classrooms, they often have difficulty focusing their attention, thinking, and managing their emotions.
But the good news from neuroscientists is that these impacts are not hard-wired or inevitable. Parents can and do make a huge difference in moderating and managing the stress of poverty to reduce the risk to child development.
Emotionally supportive parenting—when mothers and fathers share and model how to manage aggression and upset—can help impoverished children become more resilient. Moreover, keeping an orderly home and engaging in appropriate parental supervision predict better social and emotional outcomes for children in low-income families.
Much of the reason why poverty and disadvantage make parenting more challenging can be traced to stress. Parents who are under continual stresses such as food insecurity, low income, lack of employment or underemployment, and homelessness can have difficulty keeping their families functioning optimally. This, in turn, influences children’s development.
When parenting is warm and collaborative, children are protected. In fact, warm, supportive relationships can reduce the stress hormones that are released in adversity and can even reverse the behavioral and other effects of hormone overload.
4. Early childhood development: attachment
Attachment is a deep and long-lasting bond that connects one person to another. Developmental scientist John Bowlby, who originated attachment theory, defined attachment as a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.” Attachment plays a very important role in parenting.
According to attachment theory, from birth children need people around them. They soon become selective in whom they seek contact with, developing attachment relationships with their most important caregivers. These attachments evolved as a survival mechanism, explaining why parents and other carers are of such key significance to children’s development.
Almost all children have one or more attachment figures they can turn to. Researchers have discovered that children whose primary caregivers are mostly available and responsive to them and who support and care for them consistently develop what’s called a “secure attachment relationship.” When it is easy for infants to know that their caregiver is available, this gives them the confidence to explore the world around them. In contrast, children who are cared for in less reliable, consistent, and responsive ways are more likely to develop relationships characterized by ambivalence, avoidance, or disorganization. While it is still important that children have these early relationships, they might struggle more in finding security and support in future relationships.
Is there one attachment or multiple attachments? Attachment theory was developed in societies and at a time when many children were raised mainly by one parent, usually the mother. This resulted in the idea that children have one “primary attachment” with a maternal carer. This is true of some children, but more frequent across history and across cultures is multiple attachments. Children’s development experience may be a combination of secure and insecure relationships, creating the possibility that negative experiences with one caregiver may be compensated by kind experiences with another.
Give your wards the best educational experience by enrolling them into Methodist Boys High School, Lagos. (11, Sinari Daranijo Street, Off Ajose Adeogun Street, Behind Zenith Bank Head Office, Victoria Island)
MBHS has an impeccable record of outstanding success with students due to their outstanding features which include:
- Well-equipped Science Laboratories
- Well-equipped Music and Visual Arts Studio
- State-of-the-art facilities
- Classrooms structured to international standards for learning
- Sports and Gaming facilities to propel participation
- Ultra-modern e-Library fitted to Global standards
- Multi-purpose studio to groom diverse talents
- Boarding house starved of societal ills
We believe quality education has to be made as affordable as possible hence our moderate tuition fees despite the outstanding quality.
Admission currently on into the following classes: JSS1, JSS2, SS1 and SS2
Here’s how to enrol your wards:
- Purchase application forms at the school premises for Ten Thousand Naira only (#10,000) or visit https://mbhslagos.com.ng/admission_apply/
- Fill the Application form as instructed.
- Submit duly completed forms at school premises
- Voila! You’ve successfully registered your ward for the entrance examination.
DATES OF THE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION:
- Saturday, 19th March 2022.
- Saturday, 21st May 2022.
- Saturday, 16th July 2022.
P.S: You can come to the school premises with payment proof and get the form immediately.
ACCOUNT NO: 0252665520 (GT BANK)
SCHOOL ADDRESS: 11, Sinari Daranijo Street, Off Ajose Adeogun Street, Behind Zenith Bank Head Office, Victoria Island.
The policies of this present government in Nigeria is to ban the importation of food, be self-sufficient, make farming attractive for the youths and make them less independent of white-collar jobs.
The government can only achieve these if the youths at their early life, are exposed to the nitty-gritty of farming, make our education practicable, creative and workable thus the introduction of the teaching of Entrepreneurship in the Schools’ Curriculum.
These, Methodist Boys’ High School Victoria Island key into in their teaching. And to make these realisable, the School on 7th of April, 2019 embarked on an Excursion to the Republic of Benin to visit SONGHAI FARM located in Port-Novo.
Port-Novo, otherwise known as Ajase- Ipo in the Old Oyo Empire is a historical town that was made popular by her involvement in the then Slave Trade. And her port was named Port-Novo by the French who made use of the place. Port-Novo of today has become a tourist town as a result of the highly mechanised Farming activities going in the town.
Sometimes in 1980, the idea to establish an agro-allied farm in Africa came from a Nigerian Catholic Priest and a Lecturer at University of Califonia by name Father Godfrey Uzamujo. Father Godfrey Uzamujo from IMO State brought the idea to Nigeria with the intention of establishing the Agro-Allied Farm here in the Country but he was rejected with his lofty ideas.
For his intention to liberate Africa from hunger despite all the natural resources we are blessed with, Father Uzamujo left Nigeria in annoyance and headed to the Republic of Benin where the late President Matthew Kerekou accepted him and gave him over 22 hectares of lands to start what is now known as SONGHAI FARM, a world-acclaimed First Class Agro-Allied Farm.
Where do I start?
The waste, such as domestic wastes, even our faeces that have so far become a health hazard to us here in Nigeria has been turned to Bio-Gas Energy that is being used to power their Electricity. Methane Gas is effective in almost all sector of their Agricultural activities. Whereas in our country this has become so problematic to the environment and our aquatic survival.
The farm has gone as far as the production of Cooking Gas through the same process. Used Plastics are recycled to produce new products such as buckets, dustbins etc.
The Farm does not make use of Inorganic Fertilizer that is known to be so injurious to our health and the land. Instead, the Farm makes use of Compost Manure which is produced on the Farm.
Farming activities are made so attractive even to the younger ones that we brought from highbrow Victoria Island to the place. This is made possible through the production of Farm Machineries that are fabricated through recycled metal wastes.
My interview with Father Godfrey Uzamujo showed that the Nigerian Government is not ready for the kind of Agricultural Revolution that is ongoing in a tiny country such as the Republic of Benin. He said he made attempt to establish this kind of Farm in more than 18 states in Nigeria but he doubts the sincerity of those in power to make the efforts to be fruitful.
Where do we got it wrong if we could not feed ourselves because of corruption, unnecessary bottlenecks created for those Nigerians and foreigners who have a genuine interest of establishing such Farms and Industries that would have increased economic activities of the Country?
Both the State and the Federal Governments should see the example of Father Godfrey Uzamujo as a big challenge, sit down with him to reciprocate these farming activities in his fatherland. Though he was once rejected, the present Government can partner with him to have the Farm established in all the States that are yet to have one.
Seeing is believing, the numbers of visitors both local and foreign, Students and Agricultural Agents/Extension Workers that visit the SONGHAI FARM attested to the success of Father Uzomujo’s success of the revolution in Agric.
To us in Methodist Boys’ High School, Victoria Island, Lagos, we have seen this as the right steps towards achieving the sustainable entrepreneurial life for the Students. We promise to keep the flag flying even as we journey back to our Country Nigeria and make use of the experience gained.
GOD BLESS OUR COUNTRY!
The Management and Staff of Methodist Boys’ High School, Victoria Island Lagos, write to wish our esteemed parents well, as we are all bound to this general lock down of the entire Nation as a result of this pandemic disease, Corona virus nicknamed COVID-19, that is ravaging the whole World.
Though the Government has closed all Schools in order to keep us alive, but we thank God that we are all still alive as families. This is painful but we need to abide with the Government directive in order to curtail the spread of the disease and not to endanger the Students in our care.
We are glad to tell you that we had completed the scheme of work for the Second Term and were about to start the Terminal Examination when we were forced to close down. We are promising you that the school is on top of the situation and have made strategic plans to cover the lost ground whenever we resume.
Again we are preparing the SS3 students towards their WAEC and NECO Examinations as their subject teachers are teaching them through WhatsApp and Zoom devices. We also plead with parents to monitor their progress in line with the timetable sent earlier. We are promising to do more towards giving them the best before their Exams.
Parents are advised to monitor the assignments previously given to their wards when they were coming home and are also advised to keep watch over their wards at this crucial period especially on their usage of phones and other devices. They can make the best use of these when they are closely monitored by parents. We should be mindful of the type of friends they associate with so as not to pollute them.
We pray to God to put an end to the spread of this dangerous disease in our land so that the future of our children and the country at large will not be endangered. Arrangements are on to make sure that lost grounds are covered. We are very sure that the Government through various Ministries will adjust the Academic Calendar too. On our part too, we shall keep in touch with parents as regard this.
We wish us well as we pray to God to heal our land. We admonish us all to stay indoor and stay safe.
Methodist Boys High School,Victoria Island Lagos celebrated her 142nd Annual Inter House Sports Competition today 12th of March, 2020 with pumps and pageantry. It was an important event mapped out to mark the 142nd Founder’s Day of the School.
In his welcome address, the Principal of the School Very Revd. Paul Oláyíwolá Olúkúngà thanked all those who grace the Sporting Events. He emphasized the importance of Sports towards the development of a Child as it promotes good health, build friendship and inculcates in the child the habit of appreciating excellence when laurels are won and how to accept defeat when one loses competition.
The Chairman of the Sporting Events Prince Ayòdele Adedeji Oyekan appreciated the School Management for the honor extended to him as an Old Boy to be the Chairman of the day. He promised to always give his best to his Alma mata.
Other dignitaries at the event were the President of Old Boys Association Arch.Victor Braimoh, the PTA Chairman Mr Miebi, parents and other important guests.
At the end of the Competition,Westminster came first, Handsworth came second while Kingswood came third.
Attached is a video below;
Government and Civic Education Teacher is needed at Methodist Boys’ High School, Victoria Island, Lagos.
- Applicants should possess BSc, BEd or BSc/Ed in Political Science or related courses.
- TRCN certification/registration, as well as experience in teaching and marking WAEC/NECO is an added advantage.
Interested applicants should forward their CV to firstname.lastname@example.org
Location: Victoria Island, Lagos.
We use this medium to glorify the Almighty God for his protection and blessings over us from the beginning of the year 2020 till this moment. We also commend our esteemed parents and members of staff for their unalloyed support to the school. May the Almighty God continue to enlarge your coast in Jesus name.
MID-TERM BREAK: The school closes for the mid-term break on 14th February 2020.
Resumption: Boarders are expected to resume on Sunday 23rd February, 2020 for the second half of the term.
SCHOOL FEES: Debtors shall not be allowed into the school immediately after the mid-term break.
ADMISSION FORM: Our admission forms into JS1, 2 and SS1 are still available for sale at #10,000each. Intending parents are expected to obtain the forms at the school’s Bursary Department.
STUDENTS DRESSING: Every student is expected to resume with very low hair-cut, decent uniforms and very low finger- nails.
NB: It is now compulsory for every students in the school to have the school’s Brown Blazers and Cardigans. Any student who resumes without the items shall be sent home.
MID-TERM BREAK ASSIGNMENT: Parents are to ensure that their wards do the assignments given to them by their subject teachers. The assignments shall be posted on the school’s website: www.mbhslagos.com.ng.
MID-TERM RESULT: Parents are to access the results on the school App https://mbhslagos.com.ng/app on 20th Feb, 2020.
142ND INTER-HOUSE SPORTS COMPETITION/FOUNDERS DAY: The events are slated for 12th and 14th March, 2020 respectively. Parents and well-wishers are cordially invited to the events.
PTA GENERAL MEETING: The PTA’s general meeting comes up on Sunday 1st March, 2020at 1pm. Venue: the school’s Hall.
BECE REGISTRATION: The BECE registration will commence soon. Parents are hereby advised to submit their wards bio-data forms
EDUCATIONAL TABLETS: Parents who have procured the school’s educational tablets for their wards are advised to inscribe their wards’ names on the items. Parents who are yet to procure the tabs for their wards are hereby advised to do so.
Jss3 students are to resume with the sum of #500 for the purchase of their literature texts analysis for their BECE (Lagos State Junior Examination)
Very Rev. Paul Olukunga